🇬🇧🇺🇸 Frequent code smells and how to fix them

A code smell is a programming pattern that affect the long-term maintenance of some project. It is a bad design decision took at some point in time, that affect the way other people will interact with the code later on.

Code smells aren't necessary a single decision. It's not only one person's contribution. It is the whole team. Most frequent problems created by code smells are in the long term, and are created by compounding problems on top of each other. There is one bad decision at the beginning, either due to the pressure from management to ship quick, or other constraints, but the rest of the team, when facing that poor decision, instead of refactoring it and fixing it when the problem is still small, they build on top of it. And the problem compounds over time until the effort to fix it is too much to justify the investment anymore.

I'll talk about the four most frequent code smells I encountered, and some powerful methods to refactor their code into something that is more maintainable and reusable.

Primitive obsession

This one is my top favorite and I see it all the time in Python codebases.

How it appears

You have a simple function that needs to return a pair of things. Let's say some user IDs and their emails, for a later processing. A fast solution is to just return a dict with the user ID as the key and the email as the value. Then we can process them, because we have all the information we need at the time.

Then a new requirement comes. The email is not enough anymore. Now the user has multiple emails, one primary and can have zero or more secondary ones, and we need all of them, and also knowing which one is the primary one.

We can extend the function to now return a more complex object as the value, which will include all the necessary information.

Now we have complex objects with serialized user information leaking in our code. Other colleagues need to extend the same area and start building on top of them.

After a while, we end up with a huge user representation in a dict , and a bunch of small functions that know how to work with those objects (eg. get_primary_email(user_dict) ).

Why is it a problem

  • No observability: One important thing for me to consider some code as being good, is to not have to look up the usage of some variable or run the code to see what a variable holds. With the primitive obsession approach, there's no way to do that. We know it is a primitive data type that represents some kind of business object, but we don't know for sure what keys it has, what each index means, what data types are held in there.
  • Accessing information with strings or integers: This can be problematic, because hardcoded strings are prone to typos and direct index accesses don't offer us any information about what is actually being accessed.
  • Small tightly-coupled functions are scattered now all over the codebase: if that structure travels through the code base, it is hard to know and discover what kind of functionality is already implemented to work with this data. So when we have such a primitive complex object somewhere in the codebase, we don't have the necessary functions to manipulate the data in the way we need, we just create it on the fly (without knowing one teammate created the same thing in a different file a week ago). You can see how this easily leads to duplicated code and wasted effort.
  • Lack of IDE support: with dicts, lists, sets, etc, the IDE can't help us that much. At least in Python, to have some useful IDE suggestions when you write code, you have to put in some type hints here and there. But with primitive types, there's no type hint that can help us, unless we make it unnecessarily complex (eg. type hints for nested dicts are awful to create and use).

How to fix it

Introduce objects early on. Even though it is only being used in one place, contrary to popular belief, single use classes are fine. They enable easy extension over the long time and encourages grouping the related functionality on it (through methods) so it is more easily discoverable by the team.

An extra advantage is that classes define a clear contract that is being used by higher level components. So during testing (or other similar parts of the code), as long as we implement some classes that obey that contract, we can use them as a drop-in replacement for the original class, and customize the behavior of certain sub-systems even more.

Function too long

If a function is too long, it is clear that it does too much. They usually have multiple segments that can be easily extracted and isolated.

My personal rule of thumb is that, if I need to scroll to be able to see the whole function, it's too large. That limits the size of my functions to about 40 lines, which is more than enough to do the things I need to do. It also serves as a hint that it's time to extract new methods if I reach that size.

How it appears

This kind of mess can appear in two ways: either a solo developer, due to the lack of experience or laziness creates a huge functions that just works, and then commits it. And then somehow it gets past the review (so it's actually a team effort), and reaches the production codebase. Then, being a big chunk of code, other teammates will be afraid to change it, especially if it works correctly and isn't properly tested.

The other way for this code smell to appear is by many incremental changes. When the method was first created, it was small, clear and concise. But then, as more requirements appeared, the team just added more and more, added more branches, exceptions, conditions, etc. and the function grew out of control. By the time somebody had some time and will to refactor it, it became very big and very entangled. This way is more frequent that the first one, beecuse it is harder to see in code reviews. All the reviewers see are a few lines added each merge request.

Why is it a problem

Big functions are hard to manage, hard to debug due to the big number of things happening at once. Big functions are big because more than often they do more than just one thing and don't delegate enough. Due to this, they are harder to test properly (complexity is off the charts due to the huge number of possible execution branches).

If it is hard to debug and figure out what it does, it is more than likely a big time sink for the team. Whoever has to debug something inside it, will lose more time than they should and slows down their progress. Over time, it becomes "that functions" that everybody is afraid of. It's sole existence decreases the team morale.

It's true, I have seen functions of hundreds of lines of code. Debugging felt like testing an end to end product by myself to figure out all the behaviors of the function.

How to fix it

  • First, you need to make sure you have tests for it. Being a big piece of code, you can assume a lot of other code relies on it. So you need to write input-output tests for it, so you can refactor faster.
  • Extract the whole function in a separate class with a single method. This step is crucial, because inside it you can separate the function's top level data in the class members.
  • Start extracting small methods and smaller single-purpose classes. Things like if and for statements can usually be extracted in their own methods (some may say this is too granular, but it's not).
  • Write tests for the smaller extracted pieces of functionality. Now that everything is small, you tests can be more focused and can cover more cases than before, faster.
  • (Optional): replace the old function calls to the new class. This way, we get rid of the old function altogether, because right now it just became a proxy to calling our new class.

Too many parameters

If a function as too many parameters, our total possible cases are the total combinations of all the parameters. As we add new parameters, the total number of use cases raises exponentially. That's why, 4-5 parameters should be the maximum for any function.

Having too many parameters is also an indication that the function is doing too much. We need to investigate whether that's the case and we should fix that code smell before.

How it appears

Just like the 2nd reason for big functions, it appears over time. Adding new parameters one by one is a common cause for this, which is also due to the fact that the slowly the function grows into doing too much.

But even if the function does just enough, we can still end up with too many parameters.

Why is it a problem

With too many parameters, writing tests for it is harder. Ideally we would have to go through all possible parameter combination to ensure the function is completely tested.

Also, it greatly reduces readability of the code that uses that function. It forces other parts of the codebase to handle too much data at once, just to be able to call this function.

How to fix

  • Identify redundant parameters and remove them: in a lot of such cases, I found out that some parameters could be deducted from other existent parameters. For example, if we have a list of user objects, and a list of user ids, we can remove the user ids parameter because we can calculate it from the list of user objects. That's a common mistake I see: developers decide they need a certain piece of information to implement their thing in that function, and then, either due to poor parameter naming or time pressure, they add a new parameter through which they get their exact data for their exact needs.
  • Introduce parameter objects: we can create classes just for wrapping a bunch of closely related data, and pass that object to the function instead. It will act like some kind of configuration for the behavior of the function.

Too many returns

This is a problem more specific to Python, because I've seen the multiple returns (which in fact it's just a return of a tuple) abused so many times.

How it appears

There is a function that does some computation and returns a single result. Then the developer discovers that they need some more internal information from that function as well. So they add another return type. It's easy, it's fast, it does its job.

Then another developer works on the same area, they need another extra piece of information returned from that function. It already returns two things, and adding a 3rd one is easy, fast and it does it's job.

Then another, and another, etc.

Why is it a problem

Our function ends up returning 6 things. When returning many things and becomes widely used in our code, adding new returns becomes more frustrating because now we need to add a new variable to all other code that uses this function (thus leaking data to that code it doesn't need).

These functions are very error-prone to a special kind of errors: the order of the return variables and the order of the variables that receive that data needs to be the same. You'll say that it's not a problem, but when managing 7 variables at once, it's easy to swap two if you write it manually. If you copy-paste the return in your function, then it's another problem.

Yo can see this kind of code smell enables all kind of bad programming practices: copy-paste-ing code, subtle bugs, information leak in components that don't need it.

How to fix it

  • Introduce a return object: Create a new single purpose class that just holds all that data, and allows the users of that function to access them by name. This also enables IDE support for better suggestions.
  • The function that receives 7 things from our function probably does some post-processing on them before being able to use them. In that case, we can move the post-processing inside the return object, in a method, and make that functionality discoverable and reusable.


I think most bad code and code smells come from the bad assumption that we should extract in functions and classes the code that we want to reuse. If we don't plan to reuse it, don't extract it. But that is false, because we should teach other programmers that functions and classes do not always need to be reused. They serve a higher purpose, that of organizing our code better, structure it better, creating contracts between different levels of the code, and allow for better testability, readability and discoverability. I find these three things to be the pillars of a good code base:

  • testable - the code that we write is correct when we write it, not denying that. But changes appear, and some other pieces of code change all the time. It's hard to track all the usages of a function, and if we change something small in it (even fix a bug), there might be other functions that rely on that specific bug to do its job. So having small testable functions is crucial to being able to do changes faster and with more confidence. It is not about proving that the code works, but about making sure the surrounding code won't break over time.
  • readability - we spend more time reading code than writing it, so it's important to be able to tell what a line of code does without too much effort. This requires small functions, few parameters and good function and variables names.
  • discoverability - this is a thing not many developers think about when writing their code: if my code has some generic functionality, how do I enable my team to reach my code to reuse it, so I save their time and make their life easier? Using classes placed in the right modules, with the related functionality inside them, is crucial for this. Nobody will think of searching for a function that validates user emails in views.py. They will look around the user class, and then in some validator specific modules. If they can't find it in there, they will write it from scratch.